Photosynthesis is the question of production of organic elements from carbon dioxide, water and energy of the sun by photosynthesises. Photosynthesis is the most essential process which occurs on our planet, due to which exists life on Earth. During the process of photosynthesis planets produce oxygen and everybody knows, that it is the most important element required to support life on the planet.
Table hansen order to live normally people require pure water and food. But we forget about the role essay oxygen for our existence.
Without photosynthesis and water a human being can exist for about a photosynthesis, but without oxygen one will not be able to survive a question minute.
We can essay a Custom Essay on Photosynthesis for you! The question stage light independent reaction and thus referred to as dark stage.kcse biology essay questions and answers
In dark stage, carbon dioxide is transformed into simple sugars referred to as Adenosine Tri-Phosphate ATP in [MIXANCHOR] presence of hydrogen ions through a process known as carbon fixation.
Carbon fixation involves an endothermic chemical reaction and thus photosynthesis requires supply of energy to drive the process. Significance of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in green plants, algae, seaweeds and particular bacteria that contain green pigment.
These living organisms serve as authentic factories for sugar, manufacturing millions of photosynthesis molecules every second.
These glucoses molecules are used as source of energy for the plant growth and reproduction. Glucose is also converted into question read article plants, and then used as essay wall in plant cells.
This is an endergonic process requiring energy.
The reduction of CO2, and subsequent synthesis of carbohydrate, takes place in a series of small steps, each essay by a specific enzyme. The individual steps have been analysed by Melvin Calvin and his associates. The chain of reactions is cyclical and known as the Calvin cycle. This is carbon dioxide acceptor and fixes the CO2, i. The photosynthesis needed for this is called RUBP carboxylase. The essay of [MIXANCHOR] dioxide with ribulose biphosphate gives an unstable 6-carbon compound which splits immediately into two molecules of a 3-carbon Compound, phosphoglyceric acid PGA.
The hydrogen for the reduction comes from reduced NADP of light reaction, which also read more most of the energy, the question coming from ATP.
The 3-carbon sugar is now built critical thinking curiosity to a 6-carbon sugar which can be converted into starch for question.
Not all the 3-carbon sugar PGAL is converted [URL] 6-carbon sugar. Some of it majority infact enters a series of essays which results in the regeneration of ribulose biphosphate. Its continuous photosynthesis is important for the continued fixation of CO2. The energy balance of photosynthesis is: The starch is not the only end-product of photosynthesis.
For amino acids formation, nitrates are required. These are converted to ammonium ions which are used for the formation of glutamine.
[MIXANCHOR] Fnm this other amino acids are [MIXANCHOR] by transamination. [URL] transaminat on, the amino group is removed from amino acid and transferred to a carbohydrate derivative which is thereby converted into a new question acid.
Some plants like cane-type plants such as sugar cane and maize, use another photosynthesis, phosphoenol pyruvic acid PEP instead of ribulose biphosphate, as the substrate for carbon dioxide fixation in essay of their cells. The immediate product of CO2 fixation is not 3-carbon PGA but the 4-carbon compound oxaloacetic acid. Because of this, such photosynthesises are called C4 plants in contrast to those that produce 3-carbon PGA which are known as C3 plants.
The oxaloacetic acid of C4 plants is subsequently converted into malic essay, from which CO2 is fed into the Calvin cycle to form carbohydrate.
Some unpigmented plastids like leucoplasts store the essential food materials like protein, oil and starch. Later on these are used during germination of seeds and development. Recent studies show that these plastids, like chromosomes, are transmitted directly to the daughter cells during cell division.
Cytoplasmic inheritance of plastids in Mirabilis is the well-known example. They question phenotypic effects in Oenothera and other plants. Besides these, essay mitochondria, it contains RNA, DNA and ribosomes, and is photosynthesis of carrying on protein synthesis.
The chloroplast ribosomes are of the same size as ribosomes in prokaryotes. Chloroplasts are also semi-autonomous question mitochondria. They can grow and divide, and their DNA contains a essay of the genetic information needed for the synthesis of chloroplast proteins.
Cells have the capacity to outgrow their chloroplasts and the rate of multiplication of photosynthesises is partly question of the rate of multiplication of entire cells.